Letters From Scandinavia: Correspondence Between Sir Levett Hanson And His Normanton Cousin, Thomas Leake

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Back in 2013 I posted about some letters that Sir Levett Hanson, of Normanton, wrote to his cousin, Thomas Leake – also of Normaton in West Yorkshire. I posted under the heading “The ‘Sir’ Levett Hanson Letters – Part of the History of Normanton, West Yorkshire“. Back then I only included the first letter. I have now found the file with my transcribed notes of the full series. I post hear to make them all publicly accessible just in case they are of interest to any local historians.

Also posted at: Wakefield Vistas

Copenhagen November 27th 1804

Dear Kinsman

Your letter gave me great satisfaction.  Had I not been favoured with yours, I meant to write to you.  I do not doubt you and your family have lost two good friends by the death of Mrs Elizabeth and Mrs Catherina Hanson.  However, [if] you and your family conduct yourself properly and [you] remain an honest respectable character, you will always find me to be a sincere and good friend.  I have already said as much in my letters to Mr Brooke.  Whenever you have the misfortune to lose your mother, I have told Mr Brooke that you will continue to live in the house and have the orchard, both rent free, and in case of sickness or misfortune I have desired him never to let you, your family [or] your mother want for anything.

I can never forget that you are my nearest of kin on the Levett side, and, though fortune was not favourable to your father and grandfather, I beg you never forget that on the side of the Leakes and the Levetts you are as old [and] good a family as most in Yorkshire and as many in England.  The past Lord Scarsdale was a Leake, and always acknowledged your grandfather as a kinsman, although he could not come in for the Estate and Title.

The Smiths, the Torres and the Favells are [Fiz Gigges], as the late Robert Holdsworth called them in comparison with you, like father like sons.  I suppose the Baronet of Newland or the Squires of Normanton and Snydale are not a bit better than their fathers, where you do not posses the estate and fortune, these people do.  But that is nothing, remember manners maketh man, and an honest man is God’s masterpiece.

When I tell you never to do anything unworthy of your name and character, and [to] never forget whence you are sprung, I do so to [excite] you and yours to live [as] honest decent people and not to make you foolish, vain and proud, which behaviour is improper even in those who are rich and really great.

I have known you these one and thirty years, I think you must be about four and forty.  How many children have you in all and how many lads and lasses, as we say in Yorkshire?  What is the name of your [mother’s] aunt at Wakefield and is she living, she used to be my snuff merchant.  As to your son, I wish he was eighteen or twenty instead of fifteen.  I want a companion and not a servant.  My manner of living would not suit a lad [of] fifteen, although it might a young man of one and twenty.  I live much a[t] home and [am] very [retired] and do not like those who are with me to be running about.  This is hard for a lad of your son’s time of life.  Nevertheless, I do not give up the matter but he must wait [u]till I come to Hamburg.  I would wish your son, in the meantime, to stick to county business and beg you to assure him [that] I shall not forget him nor his father neither.  If you have lost two good friends in my aunts, you have found one in me.  If I have never any reason to the contrary, I shall always look upon you and love you as my next of kin.  Remember our Grandmothers were sisters.

As to the wood you wish to purchase, it is a matter upon which I do not pretend to determine anything.  Mr Brooke has my power of selling it for me and if you and he can settle the business, I shall be satisfied.  I have sent to him, by this post, that half of your letter which concerns this business and if you and he can agree, I think you ought to have the preference, but I must tell you once [and] for all, my good kinsman, that it is my firm and decided resolution never to take my business out of the hands of Mr Brooke, which I have [since] trusted to him, first of, all because he well deserves my [continued] and unlimited confidence by his past probity and attention for my interests, and secondly because, situated as I am and at so great a distance, Mr Brooke is far better able to judge of what is right and proper than I can possible [do].

When you talk of the ‘jungle’ near the house you live in, I suppose you mean the orchard.  I beg you will take great care to keep up the hedges and fruit trees.  Our Uncle, Mr Robert Levett, had made it, for its size, one of the best orchards in the parish.  It is your duty and interest to preserve it in a good state and plant choice trees when necessary.  I mention these things since you are old enough to pay due weight upon what I say.

I am glad to hear the [e]nclosure advances; certainly I would wish you to have a [close] for the convenience of you and your family and [Harpin’s Close], likewise, when he dies; but for these I expect a fair rent.  All these are things you must talk over with Mr Brooke who, I am sure, wishes to befriend you.

As to the complaints you make that the wood for repairing the house and homestead was not given to you, I must tell you I do not think you have such a great reason to be satisfied.  Mr Brooke agreed with the tenants Bailey about putting all the buildings in repair, and it was not extraordinary [that] Baily should wish to favour his brother-in-law.  So close as a man’s [shirt] sits to his…you may be sure, I as your kinsman, ever wish to give you everything.  But there is no rule with an exception, and on the outset of this rule [you] might to have made application to Mr Brooke, God knows, I never wish to take the meal of any man’s table, and least of all yours.

I heartily thank my cousin, your wife and your mother for all their kind remembrance of me and for their long and delightful assurance.  My kindest remembrances and wishes to Matthew, who is one of the most honest and best of friends I ever met with.  He has enjoyed my confidence for years and deservedly so. I don’t know anything his [quarters] with me as a friend.

But ‘tis all to no purpose, however, that will never prevent me from having more regard for him than for any other friend or acquaintance in this world and, am sure, his heart is the same towards me.  Pray let me hear from you in answer to this and write to me often.  Tell Matthew I have wrote at least two letters to him to which I have received no answer. I am very glad to hear he is well in health and spirits and I pray God you will continue so.  Remember you are a relation which is more than friend or acquaintance.  I must repeat it that I expect you will not fail to answer my letters regularly.  Be kind and neighbourly too to Matthew, when it is in your power.  I wish you all a merry Christmas and a happy New Year and remain with truest regards and friendships dear Thomas.

Your affectionate kinsman

Levett Hanson

  1. Your letter gave me great pleasure, when you write again speak to me as your near relation and make use of no ceremonies; common civility is all that is required between kinsfolk.

Copenhagen, March 22, 1805

Dear Kinsman

You very justly begin your letter by calling me kind friend, which I really am.  I can assure you, and to this [assurance] I will add that it is my intention to consider you and your family as the persons to whom I shall leave the landed property I have to dispose of.  By this I mean what I [purchased] of[f] your late father and the farm at Whitwood, which is my property.  These two farms I mean to leave upon you and yours and in such a [contingent] manner that you will not be able to sell.

As to the mood of my dear friend, I have long since told you my mind about it.  The business was entirely entrusted to Mr Brooke, upon whom I depend.  In [any] respect, he wrote me word that he has sold it for 375£ which is 25£ more than you offered, and consequently makes a notable difference.  As such, you cannot blame him for his doing the best for my interest, nor me for reaping every possible advantage from the farms at Normanton and Snydale.  I have, however, desired Mr Brooke to present you, in my name, with five guineas, and have requested him to give you as much more, when my mid-summer rents are paid.  In this sum you see marked ten guineas, and this present I shall make you every year providing I have every reason to be satisfied with you.

A family of thirteen people, you and your wife and eleven children must ware out a good many pairs of shoes in a year besides food and raiment.  However, as the proverb observes, when God gives mouths he sends wherewithal to fill them, and that by means of [your] honest industry and labours, joined to the assistance of your friends, will, I am sure, be your case.

Upon my friendship you may count most assuredly, I do not fail [to acknowledge] what you say about your eldest daughter and so soon as I am somewhat more settled you may depend upon my taking someone of your family to be with me.  At any rate, it gives me infinite pleasure and satisfaction to find you and your family have so much confidence in me as not to make any difficulty about coming to live with me.  You may always, in return, depend upon my sincere regards and affection.

You see[m], my dear kinsman, to have not quite clearly understood me as to what I said upon the subject of good character according to your situation in life.  I never doubted that you have maintained one, that you exacted yourself to maintain it, and that you are well respected by your neighbours as any person in the Parish [aforementioned].

You see, I respect your own words and again, I repeat that I never doubted that the state of the case was as you represent it.  What I meant, my dear Thomas, was to indicate to you that you [are] doubly obliged to pay attention to such points.  First of all because it is your duty as a member of society and, accordingly, because you are descended from as good a family as any in the count[r]y.  We are all under the distinct obligation of maintaining our character as men who form the community in general, and as men [who] all do nothing which can dishonour our forefathers.  You see, I speak of those who are really well descended that circumstance will ever make a difference in civilised state.  I well remember to have seen, in 1786, when I was last in Normanton and I then thought you a modest young man.  I am sure that [in] time you are not altered.

As to your house and concerns, do not make yourself uneasy about them.  I shall, this spring, give instruction to Mr Brooke to draw up my will, and, you may be assured, that Sir Thomas and Lady Cullum will never have the means of disposing of what is my own property.  You and yours are my nearest of kin and are my heirs by adoption.  Sir Thomas and Lady Cullum are t[w]o selfish interested people, they always have been and ever will remain.  So, they may do what they will with the [entitled] estate, either now or when I am gone, but they never shall see a shilling of my money.  I know them of old and I promise you, my good kinsman, you shall not be left to the mercy of Sir Thomas Cullum.  I know the pride and naughtiness of his heart to which I was never a stranger.  Never put your trust in any south of the Trent, especially Suffolk people.  I thank you for your mentioning to me their intention of selling an estate enjoyed by the Levett family for many ages; but what is mine they shall not sell, I assure you.  I am ashamed and blush for their behaviour to you about the [bedding], that after they had given it to you they sent for it back again, and left you only the bedsteads.  But such measures on their part surprises not me, the one and thirty years they are married I have seen a hundred instances of it.  Thus you see, I am well acquainted with them.  Sir Thomas, as you observe, is a very ill tempered man, and my Lady, as a woman, is not a bit better.

I was much surprised to hear that your wife’s aunt, Mrs Brown, has been dead so long as 13 years ago.  When I saw her in 1786, she certainly did not appear an old woman.  I suppose you and your wife inherited her property.

You say when your mother has gone, you will have no one left on your other side.  I thought you have [a hundred] cousins.  Leakes and [Capers] at Horbury with whom, according to what I have heard of them, the less you have to do and the better you may always count upon my friendship, both you and your family.

I shall be very glad to see you when you can make it convenient to come and pass some time with me, and by so doing you will certainly be no loser.

Pray, who is the Mr Favell who married a daughter of Mr Torre?  Is he son to Richard Favell, the surgeon, who lived at York, and grandson of old Mr John Favell of Normanton?  Pray tell me when you next write.

I am very glad to hear my old worthy, honest, tried and good friend, Matthew [Hamilton], is well and intends writing to me.  I shall always be willing to hear from him.  If circumstances had allowed him, or rather allowed me to take him into my service in 1773, I should not have been so pressed upon as I have been, nor have met with the plagues and battles I have gone through.  I know some people in Wakefield who were not his friends, whom I could mention, but I do not love to breed mischief.  Enclosed, I send you a letter for Matthew, with kindest remembrance.  You may tell him I always consider him as my oldest and dearest friend and so do whilst we remain in this world.

I learnt with much pleasure that all [were] well when last you wrote to me and [am] much obliged to my kinsman, your mother, for her hearty and dutiful wishes as to my health and happiness.  I sincerely wish you all the same and request you to remain persuaded, my dear Thomas, that I am and ever shall remain your faithful and affectionate kinsman.

Levett Hanson

Hamburg, December 10th, 1805

Dear Kinsman.

You ought to begin your letter to me and conclude them as I do mine to you.  Certainly it is that you cannot be ignorant of my regard for yourself in particular, nor of my good will towards your family in general.

I am very glad [that] my last letter gave you so much satisfaction.  As to the one you wrote in answer, I never received it.  Had you sent it under cover to Messrs [Hammersley] [& Co.], [Bankers], Pall Mall, London, I doubt not I should have received it.  However, you must be more careful another time, since I expect some little attention from you.

I speak as from one relation to another, since you must know that I wish you and your family well and have already given proofs of the sincerity of my words and benevolence.  I shall certainly not forget my relations at Normanton, upon whom fortune has not smiled, as upon those at Bury.

I shall be glad to see you next spring, providing the journey will not be too long and too expensive for you, and in case it will not occasion your being too long absent from your family, your business and your domestic affairs.  You must weigh those considerations duly before you undertake the journey.  You have a pretty long road from Normanton to Hull, and the voyage from thence to Hamburg is not indifferent to a landsman.  However, there is time enough to think and make up one’s mind to these matters before the month of May, and when I know your intentions, I will inform you when your visit will be convenient.

It is with much satisfaction [that] I observe you are no more a friend to that [renegade], that [uncivilised] philistine Bonaparte than I am, and trust that providence will, sooner or later, put a stop to his career as well as it did to that of Turpin, [sixteen string] Jack and several others of the same class and description; in fact my good kinsman, our Yorkshire horse [was] [stolen] (aye), and the London highway m[e]n are honest gentlemen when compared to such a vagabond, to such a [ruffian], to such a merciless tyrant.

In case you do come next spring to Germany, and that, for the purpose of passing some time with me, I wish you could persuade my old true and tried friend Mathew [Hamilton] to accompany you.  You tell me that he is very well and sends his love to me.  Believe me my dear cousin, I have ever [treated] him as a brother since I was first acquainted with him.  He is an honest, good-tempered man, and I wish when [he] left the service of Mr [Shawlenge] that he had applied to me to take him into mine.  It would have been the saving of some hundreds to me.  I have now known Matthew since July 1771 and have always entertained the same friendship for him.  He is a person of much prudence and good sense and I shall ever love him as a friend so long as we continue on this world.  I beg you will show him this letter.  If he had accepted my proposals, he might have come and lived with me near 12 years ago.

It gives me great pleasure to learn you are satisfied and contented with the two small [enclosures] Mr Brooke has [assigned] you, and I rejoice much to hear that they will be so useful to you and your family.  My attention and goodness towards you must convince you what a blessing and comfort it is to have good relations and kinsfolk and [ought] to induce you to have all possible kindness and proper treatment for your aged and respectable mother.

You will be pleased to observe that it is your mother, and not you, who has a life estate in the house and orchard once belonging to your father, and I must tell you that I do expect you will have all possible ease of your parent and never let her want for anything.  Remember, you are a father yourself, and how would you, in your old days, like to be abandoned and ill treated by your children.  A fault and a crime very common amongst the English, I remember to have observed repeatedly, but less in Yorkshire than elsewhere.

Mr Brooke, by assisting you, has [conferred] a favour upon myself and, as such I consider it.  I repeatedly told him never to suffer you to want whatever is proper and reasonable, and observe with pleasure that you have returned what he was so kind to advance you.  Indeed, I am well [appraised] that your good sense will always prevent you from making an improper use of his goodness, or from being troublesome to him [for] the present of ten guineas he will assuredly make you in my name so soon as the purchase money shall be made for the wood and agreed upon […].

I think you will consider me as your friend and kinsman.  Believe me, I study to be so without pride or pretension.  You have much obliged me, by what you say upon the subject of the allotments, I observe you have [sown] your [enclosures] accordingly to what you consider to be the most advantage to your family.  Pray, is Mr Bailey, my Normanton tenant, one of the Baileys of ‘Lasco’ and is Miss Holdsworth still living.

I always supposed that the present Mr Favell is son of Richard Favell who lived at York and a grandson of the late Mr John Favell as he has now [united] all the concerns of that family he must have a good estate at Normanton, the greatest part of which was made out of the Levett estate by a foolish second marriage contracted by our great grand mother Levett with a forefather of Mr Favell.  Pray, has not this Mr Favell married a daughter of Mr Torre of Snydale.  How in the name of wonder, did that proud family consent to such a [match], and where is this cousin Favell of ours gone to live in the North Riding?

You are in the right to have nothing to do with your Horbury cousins, with the [Capers] in particular.  What Leakes what [Capers], you must have a regiment by this time?  I remember about 30 years ago to have seen one of your Uncle John Leake’s sons, who, my aunt told me was one of the best of the family.  As to your aunt [Caper], she did all she could to play [tricks], expecting what was left to your father and me.  She consulted old [Noyle], the attorney who lived, I believe, at [Ryekold] and endeavoured to do all possible mischief.  As to those Horbury men, they never came to Normanton but for money.

And so, my dear Thomas, God be with you.  My best wishes to your wife, your children and your mother.  In a word, a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year, and believe me, ever your affectionate kinsman and faithful friend.

Levett Hanson

Copenhagen, June 9, 1807

Dear Kinsman

After a silence of near a year and a half you may be sure I was glad to hear from you, it is true the message of my writing to Mr Brook[e] provides you various and repeated occasions of hearing how I go on where I am, and what I am about.  But the reasons you assign for not writing sooner are by no means valid.  You have not the least occasion to lack of expense as to our correspondence, since I have, long ago, pointed out to you the mode of it being carried on without costing you a farthing.  I have, I am sure, more than once told you that you could always forward your letters to me, under cover, to Messrs Hamersley, my bankers, who live in Pall Mall, London; and they will not fail of transmitting them to me.  As to mine addressed to you, I always send them under cover to Mr Brooke.  Of course they cost you nothing, your excuse, therefore, about the expense is at best a very lame one.  It might have gone down some thirty years ago when you [were] Tommy Leake laking in the Town Gait or Church Yard at Normanton, but it won’t hold good [now] you are a man and the father of a family.

I was very glad to hear you are all well in health, especially your mother who is the only survivor of our old set of kinsfolk.  Fail not to lack care of her and treat her with kindness.  It is your duty so to do and an obligation where from nothing can unbind.  You remember so long as she lives, she has a life estate in the house and orchard you occupy and you are her tenant.

I need not tell you how thankful you ought to be to providence for having prolonged the lives of your parents until you [were] creditably and comfortable settled.  I had the misfortune to lose my mother before I was five or six and my father before I was eleven years old, and owing to those early loses I may well and truly ascribe almost every mishap that has befallen me.

Had my friend, Mr Matthew Hamilton, entered my service when he went to Mr Torres, the case would have been very different.  He is a prudent, reasonable man and would have taken the best of care of everything connected with my interests.

You once talked of coming to see me last year.  It was not quite convenient for me to receive your visit since my stay at Hamburg was very uncertain and it was equally so as to my returning to Copenhagen, which I consider as my home and favourite dwelling place.  I wish when harvest time is over, that you would come and pass two or three months with me at Copenhagen.  You must persuade Matthew Hamilton to accompany you.  You can go from Wakefield to Hull and so take shipping from [Ellesmere], which is only twenty English miles from Copenhagen.  There I will meet you and conduct you to this city, where you shall be treated as a dear kinsman and a good friend and Matthew like an old well beloved friend for whom I will always entertain and mention that regard and esteem which he so well deserves from me.  Think upon this and let me see you both.  I will pay all travelling expenses, as you deserve, my dear Thomas.

I have had a good deal of trouble to keep myself out of the reach of the French armies since the 23 October 1805.  I have undertaken several long journeys for the purpose.  Thank God I have succeeded so far and find myself very comfortable in Denmark.

It is my wish and hope, sooner or later, to be able to return to [???], the place of all others after [Madeira] which I, on all accounts and in all respects, ever found to be one of the most agreeable and desirable for a reasonable man to inhabit.  It is a small city where I would rather live and die than any other.

I thank you much for your information respecting the manner in which our late cousin Holdsworth disposed of his estate and property.  I am glad you came in for five pounds at least, he might as well have left you fifty.  He was a singular, good-tempered man to leave his estate to a person who was no [sense] related to him.

Mr Holdsworth[‘s] grandfather, by his father’s side, married a Levett and your grandfather by his mother’s side married a Holdsworth; brother and sister married brother and sister.  Insomuch as your father and Mr Holdsworth were second cousins, double blood, you and I and [all] the Leakes and Capers were as ourselves equally related to him as to my late aunts, Lady Cullum and myself.  It is not to be wondered at that he left us nothing, since in 1766, Lady Cullum refused him for her husband and he always thought that my aunts and I had persuaded my sister not to marry him.  I, for my own part, never expected a [sliver] from him.

I wish Mr [Mallory] much good look with [h]is fortune and long life and health to enjoy it.  Pray, is he a clergyman or what is he and what sort of character does he bear?  Does he live at ‘Lasco’ and, pray, what is the name of the present vicar of Normanton, and of the clergyman, who does duty there?  Tell me also, what are become of the Middletons, old Robert’s sons?  I remember William, Jack, Tom, Charles and Robert.  Tell me, likewise, what are become of the Crawshaws?  I once knew Jackey and Billy and Jassey.  Jackey, I know, died long ago.  What has become the two others?  Old Maude, Mrs Buckle[‘s] uncle ruined that family.  Did not the son of our cousin Richard Favell, the surgeon, marry a daughter of Mr Torre of Snydal?

I, for my part, should as soon have expected to hear that our King George had married one of his daughters with a court gentleman, as to have hear[d] that a young lady of the proud, stiff family Torre was married to a Favell.  To what place in the North Riding [has] this Favell gone to live at?  Answer me all these questions when church is over on a Sunday. You may as well sit down and write me a long letter as to walking about the fields or standing at the house steps near the churchyard gates, both which I well recall of used to be the chief Sunday morning amusement at Normanton in the spring, summer and autumn.  Your church in an afternoon on Sunday used to be empty almost….

For one to comply therewith, you must observe, my good kinsman, that since the 23 October 1805 I have been compelled to expend at least £400 more than I should have done had I remained settled and quiet at Copenhagen.  Add this to all the money I was under the necessity of paying away for Thomas Cullum and for other purposes after the death of my good aunt and all expenses and outgoings attending the enclosures of Normanton and Snydale and Whitwood, and you will perceive that it is totally out of my power.  We, at present, live in precarious, uncertain and [feckless] times, [when] a man has not ready money at command he may find himself in a sudden put to a non plus.

Be assured, my kind dear kinsman, that I am very far indeed from being offended at your applying to me for the loan in question; on the contrary I am much pleased with your candour.  I am confident that I am your [hearty] and sincere friend as well as an affectionate relation.  You are already….of and grateful sentiments you express these upon and are most highly accepted to me.  I am glad my friend Mathew was so well when last you wrote to me; enclosed is a letter you will deliver to him with my best assurance and kindest wishes.  When you answer this, spare not your paper, tell me how old you are, how old my cousin, [how old is] your wife, how many children you have, how many boys how many girls, how old each is and what their Christian names are.  I like to know such details and matters with particular exactness.  I am glad to see you and I entertain the same opinion on Bonaparte; no two honest people can passionately form two different opinions respecting such a tyrannical [monster].

It will give me much pleasure to learn, and to have occasion to inform you than the French [have] been defeated, most completely, in Poland.  It will, in like manner, give me much satisfaction to hear that you have happily as well founded expectation to be blessed with a fine summer such as fallen to our lot, and such as we expected in Denmark.  You, as a farmer, must feel interested in such matters.

I was glad indeed to find [by your] last [letter], that you were all so well in health, which is the first and greatest blessing, such as been my state for many years past.  I was never so well as throughout this winter at Copenhagen.  Would the state of the times allow it, I think I should be as well able to undertake a journey on [foot] from here to Copenhagen as I did in 1802 from Hamburg to that city.

My kindest and best wishes to your wife, children and mother.  Believing me, my dear Thomas, your faithful and affectionate kinsman.

Levett Hanson

Stockholm, June 23, 1808

Dear Kinsman

You will have found the time long since you wrote to me, and that I have suffered you to remain so many months in that giving you an answer.  But what between my own concerns and the particular duties of my office, my time has been so taken up that I have not had a spare moment to bestow upon you.

Moreover, the winter months in the country are extremely long and the days equally short.  That season, in December, we must light our candles at four in the afternoon.  But as a recompense for that inconvenience, in the month of May and the three following, we have no night and the sky, the heavens, are clear and as bright as they are in England at half past eight in the evening.

In addition to all these causes which have prevented me from writing to you, I must tell you likewise that from the first of November last until the beginning of May I was much enjoyed in company as the town was then full and we had many English, of good families, here at the time [of] our King’s birthday.  They are [now], most of them, upon their travels throughout Sweden, and many are returned to England.  The Swedish nobility and gentry [have] also gone into the country so that Stockholm is very empty at present.

I shall follow their example and go to some of our [Harrowgates] for two or three months by way of changing the air and living a little in the country.  This causes, I say, my good kinsman, as well as the others above mentioned, prevented me from writing to you with my usual exactness.

However, our worthy friend, Mr Brooke will hear me witness that I have always remembered you in my letters to him with that affection so justly due to you as a near relation, and that esteem which belongs to you as a father of a large hopeful family and an industrious honest painstaking man.

I was glad to hear from you, last, that it left you all hearty and well, especially my good cousin, Mrs Leake your mother, who I rejoice much to find holds out so well.  Forget not to make her old age easy and pleasant and comfortable, you cannot forget the commandment which orders you to obey your father and mother, and that commandment you must keep observed if you expect your children, in their time, shall love, honour and obey you.  My kind respect and wishes to your mother, your wife and all your family.  Continue, all of you, in the good way hitherto followed; steer, always, the same virtuous, honest course and you may rely upon, always, joining me, your affectionate kinsman and sincere friend.

I thank you for the information you gave me concerning the Crawshaws.  That family was ruined by the too great indulgence of a foolish and [ever fond] mother, who suffered them, the three sons, Jackey, William and Jassey.  I mean, to do as they pleased, and consequently, they run through everything in that business.  They were a good deal assisted by a person who had a view to get hold their estate, in which point, if he did not himself, his family has completely succeeded.

Jackey served his clerkship with one who gave him more than the [length] of his feather, for his particular pen passes.  I remember, his being in that situation and that very circumstance joined to their mother’s foolish fondness and indulgence, laid the foundation of their subsequent ruin.  I[t] was foreseen and foretold long, long before it happened in 1768, now forty years ago.

I recollect having seen three brothers, of whom it might be said that neither the three [ridings] of our county, nor any three other countries could provide three taller made, handsome young men in one and the same family.  But what is all this without prudence and good conduct?  You see, it leads to nothing.

So William, John and Robert Middleton are all gone.  In 1768 [and] 1770 when I was at Normanton to pass Whitsun Day holidays, we were all playfellows together, so were poor Billy Denton, Jassey Crawshaw, Tom Norton, Tom Priestley, Tommy Middleton and many others, when we used to play a hid and seek together.  I have [carried] them all in turn, and so have they me.  [Is dear] Thomas Middleton still alive, I can[‘t] well remember; assure him of my faithful remembrances and good wishes.  I liked all the brothers: William, Thomas and Charles, but Thomas the most of them.  We used to call him ‘the little fox’, he was so cunning in hiding himself, in catching others and escaping from being caught.  If I know of anything that would give him pleasure as a recollection [of] his old play fellow, I should be glad to give it as a remembrance of old times.  Endeavour to learn if half a dozen silver teaspoons, or such things, would be agreeable to him; pray do not fail to answer soon.  You can always put letters under cover to Messrs Hamersley, my bankers, who will forward them to me and that will save you [the] expense of postage.

I send this, for the same reason, to Mr Brooke, to the end that it may cost you nothing.  I hear all your children have been [inoculated].  Keep up to good old manners and customs, as our Uncle Levett did, and do not, either you or yours, run after expensive new fangled fashions.  My most kind and friendly wishes to my old friend, Mathew Hamilton.  Why does he never write to me? I have not heard from him these four years.

Pray, live neighbourly and upon good terms with him, and, if he ever be sick or unwell, let him want for nothing you and your family can do for him.  I will not fail to make good to you any expense you may be at on my account, as above mentioned Matthew may be assured that I have the same friendship and regards for him as I had in 1771, 1772, 1773, when I saw him for the last time.  Take care to show him all my letters, since there are no secrets and I wish him to read everything that relates to him.

As to myself, this leaves me tolerably well, but my health is not so good as when I was at Copenhagen.  The air of Denmark is much wholesomer than that of Sweden, and the climate much better.

Adieu, dear cousin, and believe me, your sincere and faithful friend and most affectionate kinsman.

Levett Hanson

Copenhagen, July 29, 1812

Dear Kinsman

Your letter of December last, without any precise date, reached me about the middle of January.  You seem to mistake the matter concerning my motives upon the subject of your voyage and journey by sea and land to Sweden and Stockholm.  I am far from thinking that your undertaking was either rash or improper.

What I [thought] and said, still do, and ever shall say, and, I think, was that you ought to have wrote to me and informed me of your intention in such a manner that I might have been appraised of it at least a month or six weeks before you arrived in Sweden, to the end that I might have taken [any] measures with my friend, Mr Smith, the English Minister, or consult rather at Gothenburg and with the gentleman messenger to the King our Sovereign, who when then, in waiting, whereby you might have been enabled to travel from Gothenburg to Stockholm with as much ease as from York to London, and instead of passing one month with me and my friends you could have easily and conveniently, to me, to yourself, to your affairs, and to your family at home, have remained three months in the capital of Sweden.

All this, is truth and fact, the consequence of your not having given me timely information of your coming.  You are in some measure better acquainted with, than I am, you [got] [inkled] with, Captain Clark and [the] race of riffraff coasting masters of merchantmen who kept you in their hands as long as they could and transferred you from one to another as it suited their purpose.

These honest fellows found out that you was a landsman, who never travelled, and they were determined to ransom and fleece you out of as much as they could and, in short, to make a penny out of you.  Thus, you [were] kept at sea upwards of six weeks, without been suffered to go on shore before you arrived at Stockholm, [and] exposed to all kinds of dangers.  This circumstance, of course, delayed your arrival at Stockholm [and] shortened your stay.  [These], very considerably threw you into the worst season for returning, made you wait a long time at Gothenburg in November [and] [retarded] your return to England.

Had you wrote to me, as I have already mentioned, in ten days could you have performed the voyage and journey from Hull to Stockholm.  Since you told me that, in five days, you sailed from Hull to Gothenburg, and you know by experience that [these] days at the utmost, the King’s messenger were up and down to and from Gothenburg to Stockholm, so allowing you, in the season of the year when you put in at Gothenburg, two days to rest yourself [and] you might, as I have said, have come from Hull to Stockholm in ten days without the smallest difficulty; but no more on this subject.

I beg of you, had you not talked of your rash attempt, I should never have said a word more upon the subject, but you have forced me to do so because I think it necessary to represent to you, in the strongest and clearest terms, where you [were] blameable in that transaction.

You have certainly delayed writing to me as long as it was well possible for you to do.  To tell you plainly my notions as to the point, I must [warn] that I am very seriously of [the] opinion, that had not Mr Brooke intimated to you that you [were] to give up the land you farmed from [me], you never would have given yourself the trouble of writing to me.

I am glad to find you have settled your creditors, but as to suffering the [Close] to remain in your hands, that I can never consent to.  You own me [now][:] four years rent, which amounted to forty pounds, [and] your journey to Stockholm, [which] cost me thirty pounds more out of my pocket besides your expenses whilst with me, which one way or other made ten more.  Here, then, is [four] [score] pounds, to which, if we add my annuity to your mother and my annual present to you, it will follow that since the beginning of October 1808 you received a full hundred pounds, which is much more than one third of my clear yearly income.  This, therefore, is a running sore, which must be healed, and the sooner the better.

I quite agree with Mr Brooke, [that] in this business, [as] in all others which relate to my Yorkshire concerns, presuming upon the near relationship which subsists between us, upon my good easy temper, and upon my past kindness to you, you could have gone on, my good kinsman, without ever paying me a farthing.  This, with regard to you, is somewhat of a family failing.  Your late father, whom I well remember, was an acute, shrewd, [and] sensible man.  But he always went upon crutches by depending more upon kinsfolk than upon his own toils or labours.  This sort of conduct you must avoid, as much as possible.

I myself do not fail to [bestin] my [stumps] [as] to augment the [shot] in the [lacker].  In 1802 I printed a work, by which I am no [loser], and in the course of last year I prepared and printed another, whereby I have gained one hundred and twenty Guineas.  It is true, my dear Thomas, well one may say that we cannot, all of us, be as you and I are, authors and carpenters.  But those who are carpenters and authors [may] stick to their trade and calling and, as far as depends upon themselves, endeavour to extract all the profit they can from their individual and respective situations.  This maxim must never be neglected.

What you have told me of [Askhan] does not much surprise me.  He is a [thoroughly] hearty, good fellow and a true Englishman.  You must no doubt still remember the very cheerful, rational, pleasant day we passed with him when we dined and [suppered] with him by his invitation at his lodgings.  [Askhan] is generous, hospitable and honest; he is no enemy but his own.  I wish him well in his new calling.

Mr [Ruhl] is much obliged to you for your kind and friendly remembrance of him.  As well as myself, he was very glad to have passed the [means] of doing anything that was useful or agreeable to you and begs to present you his best wishes so far as relates to everything [concerning] the interest and [real] welfare of yourself and your family.

Mr Steward, our old friend and companion, is as we hear, [placed] as land steward in service of some nobleman.  Since you left us in 1808, all the old set, which was so closely connected and held together for three years, nearly is dispersed in all quarters.

I am sorry that in your last [letter] you have not once mentioned my old friend Matthew Hamilton.  If he is still living, tell him that I esteem and regard him as much as I did in 1771 and 1772 and shall continue to do so whilst breath remains in my body.  I wish when he quitted Mr [Gream] in 1773, that he had been placed with me.  He should have been, had I known everything then as well as I do now, and we, neither of us, should have been losers.  But so it is in this world, and we must submit and bear patiently our disappointments.

So fare you well good cousin, may the Almighty bestow His blessings upon you and your family, and believe me to remain, most sincerely, your affectionate kinsman and friend.

Levett Hanson

No. 211 Westerwold Copenhagen

Wednesday April the seventh 1813

Dear Kinsman

When you will receive this, my answers to your letter [dated] February the 19th, I know not circumstances as matters are at present.  I do not recollect previously, the day when yours was delivered to me, but this I remember, namely, that it came very quickly, which indeed often happens with regard to the arrival of mails at Gothenburg, the only [cabal] whereby, at present, we can receive letters from England as far as the case requires it.

I beg you will accept my [consolatory] assurances of the interest I take in the loss you have experienced by the death of your only surviving parent.  However, my cousin, your mother lived to a good old age, far exceeding the accustomed bounds of life, and which providence grants only to a few of its creatures that you feel as you ought to do.

The full weight of such a family misfortune is matter, Mr Thomas Leake, of the truth whereof I am well persuaded.  You cannot but lament the death of the person to whom you [were] indebted for your birth, for the care of your infancy and the kind treatment which through yet a long life she never failed to exhibit towards you.  However, as she in this world performed all her duties as a patient wife, a tender mother and a sincere good Christian all may steadfastly hope, therefore, that she will receive the reward of the past and enjoy the blessing of a happy eternity in the region where the afflicted find comfort and [the] faithful enjoy everlasting rest.

As you justly observe, the premises and the jungle, as you call it, can become part of my freehold property, but for all that I am much inclined to believe that, with the exception of my being no longer in a state of paying the annuity to my late cousin, I shall not, by this addition to my said property, become much richer.

In your present situation, it is natural for you to wish for comfort, and what I can, I will administer to you.  Observe for the present, I shall not make you many great promises, not enter into any extensive engagement.  All I shall say at this juncture, is that so long as you and your wife live, it is my intention that you shall enjoy the house and jungle, or orchard, rent free and as to what more I may do, that will depend upon your conduct.

Upon my friendship you may depend; I have never ceased giving you proofs of it, you cannot fail remembering how I received and treated you when you arrived at and remained in Stockholm, the expense attending your stay and the sum of money I advanced you when you left me, are evident and solid proof at my acting towards you as a relation and friend.  I mention this to you not by way of boasting, nor of making you feel for the weight of the obligation, but for the sake of convincing you that the benevolence and generosity must be exercised with discretion as I have already observed to our mutual friend, Mr Brooke.  The above named items and the sum you are still indebted towards me amount to more than one third of my clear income.  In both your want of punctuality in paying your amount due to me fall heavily upon me when I was under the necessity of taking a long journey with Mr Ruhl and my housekeeper, the Christine you may remember to have seen at Master [Delquillion’s], from Stockholm to Gothenburg and from the latter named place to Copenhagen.

When I came here I had a small house to furnish, some outstanding old accounts to settle, which owing to the war, once subsisting between Denmark and Sweden, I had been prevented from doing sooner and then again in that year 1810, I was minus in my receipts an amount of the order to the tune of sixty eight guineas.  Last year I had to settle with the family of my predecessor in office, which at one stroke swept two hundred and eighteen sterling pounds out of my strong box.  Put all these items together and you will find that they form a heavy sum total, which prevents me from being over and above bountiful to either friends or kinsfolk.

This is a true statement of my affairs.  I can assure you with respect to what you mention concerning the raising [of] my rents.  I will candidly confess to you that what you have said to me upon the subject is, in fact, the first word I have heard about the matter.  From Mr Brooke I have not received a line, no, not since last year.  I think, however, that he might have mentioned to me your mother’s death, and have let me know his intentions as to increasing the rents paid by the tenants to the [sum] of Sir Edward Smith and Mr Favell augment their rentals.  I think [that it] is but fair that I should follow their example in a just proportion in due time.  I doubt not that I shall hear from Mr Brooke if he has not wrote ‘till now I [dare] answer for it that he has had good reason for remaining silent.

As you may well imagine, I was exceedingly glad to hear that my very old friend and dear and beloved friend, Matthew [Hamilton], is well.  May [he] ever command from what is in my power to give him.  Let the wind blow as it will with him, he may always count upon the half of my last guinea being at his service.  I know no one living for whom I have so much esteem, so much friendship and so heavy an affection, and I beg that you will not only tell him so for me, but take care, likewise, that he reads this letter.  Herewith are letters for him and Thomas Middleton.  Matthew and I have been friends these two and forty years and Tommy and I were play fellows in 1768, that is to say five and forty years ago.  I always had a great liking for all the Middleton family.

By this post I have wrote to Mr Brooke and have requested him to purchase half a dozen silver tea spoons and a pair of silver tea tongs, and to present them in my name to ‘little fox’ Thomas Middleton, who, like myself, is I suppose, now growing up as a fellow.  You will give these letters to him with my best remembrances and kindest wishes, the same to my cousin, your wife, yourself and your family.

I was sincerely glad to learn that you and yours, as well as dear Matthew Thomas Middleton and William [Walker], were well, may the Almighty grant that you may continue.

So as I have for him, Mr Ruhl thanks you much for your friendly enquiries and good wishes, as he never was a friend by halves to any one.  So [I] can assure you, he is a real and true friend to you, he is never prone to do the smallest enquiry in disservice to any one, and far from [invitations] [be] against you, he in all [ticklish] occasions as your warm [advocate] and never fails to plead your cause.

Thank God we are both in good health and are [enjoying] [even] [spirits] since my establishment at Copenhagen.  We have lived pleasantly and agreeably, but not so gaily, nor amidst much jollity as when you was at Stockholm.  This, however, is not to be wondered.  At Sweden and Denmark are different countries and Sweden and Denmark are different people; the same principle is equally just with respect to their capitals and, moreover, there is not that throng and overflow of our countrymen here as there at Stockholm.  When you were as kind as to come to see, besides, you know the English like to live well and are richer and more generous and sociable than are the people of other countries, you cannot have forgot John [Ascham’s] very pleasant [dinners].

You tell me that it is your intention to pay me the money you owe me.  This piece of information is highly acceptable to me and hope and trust you will keep your word, for I will tell you politely and sincerely once and for all, that if you expect any future favours from me towards yourself or your family, you must be exact and punctual in all money transactions.  I will not suffer my relatives to be a dead weight upon me.

You remember no doubt, Mr Ross, one of His Majesty’s messengers who treated you with a bowl of punch the night you left Stockholm.  Poor man, he died lately after only a few hours [of] illness.  The doctors could not make out what his complaint was.   He was not much on the wrong side of fifty.

I shall be glad to hear that this finds you and yours well and comfortable.  You should write to me oftener than you do since postage costs you nothing.  Why will not Matthew give me a line now and then.  I wish he would, if it was only to assure me that he bears the same good will towards me as he did in 1771 and 1772 when we were at Mycliffe and Wakefield together.

Dear Thomas, farewell, and believe me, to remain your real friend and affectionate kinsman.

Levett Hansen

ENDS

 

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Walton Walks: The Old Quarry

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Your turn right into the public footpath visible on the left of the picture below at the opposite side of the road to the white car.

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Here is the entrance to the footpath.

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Looking down the path to the stile into the next field.

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Looking beyond the stile you can see Rose Farm, a building of local historic importance.

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The footpath runs across the field. You head toward the fence on the left at the other side of the field.

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If you look to your left, the clump of trees mark the edge of the quarry which is the what I have used to describe this walk. ****

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Turn right at the stile.

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Take the left fork. The next stile is visible at the end of that road.

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Here is the stile on the right.

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Walk across the field to the next stile.

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When you have gone over the stile, follow the path.

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In the trees, to the right of the path is where the quarry, referred to previously, was located.

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The bank up to the tree covered former quarry can be seen below at the next stile.

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Continue forward to the corner of the field and then follow the path turning 90 degrees.

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Walton Walks: The Canal

This is one of a series of articles that provide a photographic impression of walks around the village of Walton, near Wakefield in West Yorkshire. The idea is to provide something vaguely similar to Google Street View, so the reader as a visible indication of the walk’s progress.

The Barnsley Canal was opened in 1799 during the industrial revolution when the north of England was at the centre of the biggest historical change since the creation of the first cities on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the Middle East.

The canal was built to transport coal from the early coalfield around Barnsley to the wider region (1). It was part of the infrastructure of the world’s first industialised society.

This article is about a walk exploring some of the still visible archaeology of this earliest industrial age.

On this walk we are going to do our best to follow the route of the old Barnsley canal that ran through Walton and effectively linked Walton into the wider trade and communication network. It linked Walton to the River Calder, which linked to the Aire, the Ouse, the Humber, and ultimately the North Sea.

We start this walk at Bridge House on School Lane which is right next to a bridge. The bridge looks completely out of place because it does not seem to go over anything. However, this was one of the bridges of the the old canal.

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After you turn right out of School Lane you can see the bridge as seen in the two photos below.

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As you move forward crossing the bridge, if you look left you can see where the canal went as it moved North toward the point where it moved toward the River Calder at Heath Common. In the photo below the canal used to run on its course behind the bushes on the left. It ran toward the building on the right which was a lock keeper’s cottage and continued to the railway line, where there was was once a bridge that the canal flowed under. This bridge was filled in around the late 1970s/early 1980s, blocking the previous route to Walton Colliery.

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If you look to the left you can see the embankment of the canal behind the allotments. The houses on the left in the photo below are built on the canal’s course.

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Continue down the lane shown in the photo below.

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Take the middle route (the smaller path) in the image below.

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If you walk a short while down the left hand path you can look back and get an impression of the route of the canal you saw from the Bridge. In the photo below you can just make out the top of the bridge to the left of Bridge House. You can also see the bank of the canal where the green of the fields meets the fence.

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The central path is shown below.

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At the end of this path you turn right, and then right again into Walton Club playing fields.

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The route of the canal is marked by the trees on the right, behind the Walton Club building shown below.  Locks were located at the position of the stone house to the left of the club house.

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At the top of the club car park your turn right.

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If you look to your back after walking a few paces left you see the road to Crofton and the blue sign that directs us on our route.

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This is the entrance to the footpath to which the blue sign points.

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You walk for a short while and you emerge into a small meadow. The path is in the middle of what was the canal.

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A path goes off to the left to Cherry Tree estate, but our walk takes use forwards.

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We are still in the middle of what was the canal, you are aware that you are at the top of the canal embankment because of the houses at the bottom of the bank being much lower.

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If you look to your left you can see the rooftops of Cherry Tree, Elmwood and Brooklands estates and the Walton Colliery nature reserve beyond.

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You can see from the incline of the path that we are moving up the contours. This is why locks were needed on the canal – so that the barges could effectively go up hill.

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The image below captures the remains of one of the locks as the level of the canal rises up the contours.

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The canal continues in the photo below to the left of the path under the green undergrowth.

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We then reach the remains of the next set of locks seen in the images below.  These remains are far more extensive that they ones we passed earlier.

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The next bridge we reach did not go over the canal in its heyday, but was only put there recently to link the new golf club house the the golf course.

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The clubhouse can be seen on the right.

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We then reach the next bridge that was part of the original series of bridges over the canal.

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Follow the path forward ignoring the path going up to the bridge on the right.

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Continue forward.

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We ignore the path to the right and continue walking on the left towards the bridge over the canal.

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In the photo below we are now approaching the next bridge on our journey, the canal is to the left and the straight line of the bridge just visible through the trees. On the right hand side you can see the rock out of which the canal was dug.

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The bridge comes clearly into view and you can see what remains of the canal running underneath it.

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The following photo is a close up of the stone of the bridge as it was built into the rock that was cut away to make way for the canal.

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Another view of the rock cutting a bit further on, the canal remains on the left.

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If you turn your vision to the left you can see the mud that indicates the canal’s course.

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The rock cutting is visible on the far side of the canal.

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As you move forward you may even come across parts of the canals course that actually still manage to accumulate water, especially after recent rainfall.

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Continue to follow the path onward into the tunnel of bushes.

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You then  come to the next bridge, this one had collapsed in the middle and repaired using metal rather than stone.

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You continue round the bend in the canal. The block to the left of the path is part of the former canal infrastructure. This was used as an aid to make it easier for the horses to pull the barges round the corner.

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Here is a close up view.

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The canal continues on the left hand side, this part has water in it that has encouraged the growth of these aquatic plants.

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The water becomes a bit deeper as you walk forward with duckweed on the surface. In the 1970s when I first walked on the canal route this was the appearance of the canal from the start of the wall, though it was still deeper than this.  Nature has gradually reclaimed this artifact of the industrial revolution.

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The canal then all but disappears under recent tree growth as seen in the following image.

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As you move onward, the canal has been filled in and is little more than a drainage ditch.

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It then reappears at the left hand side as seen in the photo below. The steps in the distance go up to the next canal bridge which is just about visible through the trees.

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If you are on foot you can take either the route under the bridge or the path on the right round it (both lead to the same place).

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You then continue to follow the canal that though dry, can just about be made out on the left of the photo below.

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You then come to another of the canal artifacts that we saw earlier.

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We have now just about completed the canal portion of the walk. We can retrace our steps back to our start point or we can go back a different way. If you look to your left you will see the silver coloured rail; that is the way we will be going back on this walk.

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If you look straight ahead you see the bridge in the photo below. The track to the left is our route to the silver rail and the way back. However, for a couple of minutes we will walk to the other side of the bridge.

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From the middle of the bridge, if you look to your left you will see the reservoir that was presumably used to provide for the water needs of the canal and its locks.

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If you look right you can see how the water flows into the canal.

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Continue a little bit further and you can have a better view of the reservoir. On the other side of the reservoir, the canal continues on its way toward Royston and Barnsley. This could be the subject of another canal walk.

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Head back across the bridge and continue in a straight line to reach the silver rail pointed out earlier.

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Here you can see another part of the canal’s infrastructure in the form of a stone wall. I’m not entirely sure what its function could be, perhaps another lock. The OS map seems to indicate that the canal goes this way, presumably to get into the lake.

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While you see evidence of a channel, it soon disappears.

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So we now follow the path from the silver rail moving off toward the right. You soon reach a bench with the words “Fox Well” carved into it on your right hand side. Fox Well is a label on the relevant OS map. You continue past it following the path onward.

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Continue right on the main path. To the left is what remains of a clearing, though it is now been colonised by silver birch trees.

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Continue forward keeping the ‘clearing’ on your left.

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You then come to another junction – you continue to go round the corner on the right.

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If you look left before moving on to the right you will see a working wood yard.

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Continue forward until you reach the next junction which has a useful sign post and a picture giving details about the wood for interested visitors.

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If you look right at the junction you see the following gate. This leads to the Angler’s Country Park.

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However, we now take the left turn and walk towards Waterton’s Watchtower, which was a hide in which the Naturalist Charles Waterton used to watch the wildlife without disturbing it. I am reliably informed that there were a number of these ‘watchtowers’ with underground tunnels connecting them. The information point pictured above mentions that Waterton’s Watchtower could have been one of the first ‘hides’ in the world. To see the watchtower you go through the metal gates in the middle of the following photo. However, we take the left turn and follow the wall.

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We then turn right and continue to follow the wall.

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We reach a cottage that is built into the wall and continue left over the bridge.

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If you look off the bridge you can see the course of the canal. In the two photos below you can certainly see the canal, complete with water because these were taken a few years ago, but today you can still get the impression of the location of the canal.

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Continue up the hill and when you reach the top you have an impressive view of the surrounding countryside.

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You continue by turning right, and moving round the bend. In the image below you can see Rose Farm in the left of the picture below.

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If you look to your right you see the line of trees. This is where the canal is and that is the route we followed on the earlier part of this walk.

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You then reach a junction with the lane to Rose Farm on the left. We continue on the main lane that turns to the right.

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You continue up the hill where you join The Balk which continues to the centre of the village emerging next to the war memorial.

(1) Barnsley Canal https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barnsley_Canal

Anniversary of The Drunken Defeat of the “Merrie City ” of Wakefield During the English Civil War

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This Saturday, 20 May 2017, marks the 374th anniversary of the 1643 Battle of Wakefield. This Battle should not be confused with the far more famous and historically significant battle that took place during the Wars of the Roses in 1460. Our battle took place during the first year of fighting in the near decade long struggle between Cavaliers and Roundheads that was the English Civil War.

This conflict between King and Parliament was important in the development of our modern institutions of parliamentary democracy and in many ways the system of government that emerged in the United States. It is gratifying that my home city of Wakefield was involved in these momentous and world changing events. It is also interesting that there was a unique Wakefield twist to what happened at the time battle was joined.

Since the Middle Ages Wakefield has been known as the “Merrie City” and has had a reputation as a place where people can have a good time. Westgate is still known as a place where people go out drinking on Friday and Saturday nights. It is ironic that ‘revelry’, although this time outside the environs of the centre itself, was the cause of the Royalist defeat.

An informative article (1) about the battle can be found at BritishBattles.com. I paraphrase the key information from the article as follows:

On the eve of battle, the officers were at nearby Heath Hall next to today’s Heath Common. The royalist officers were playing on the bowling green there and to put it in modern parlance ‘getting hammered’. By time of the Parliamentarian attack the royalist officers were seriously worse for ware leaving the rank and file effectively leaderless. It is quite possible that the party at Heath Hall may have been a deliberate ruse on the part of the Hall’s Dame Mary Bolles to allow Wakefield to be easily taken by the parliamentary forces.

The article notes that Parliamentary forces attacked from the north focussing their efforts on Northgate and Warrengate that those familiar with the modern city will know well.

(1) The surprise attack on the town of Wakefield in West Yorkshire by Sir Thomas Fairfax on 20th May 1643 http://www.britishbattles.com/battle-of-wakefield/

Other articles about the battle:

http://bcw-project.org/military/english-civil-war/northern-england/yorkshire-1643

http://www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=260

North Korea – An Opportunity for China to Assert its Global Leadership

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Credit for above photo: Airunp WikimediaCommons

The way China acts with regard to the current crisis on the Korean Peninsula could represent a key turning point in the evolution of the international world order. It could be as symbolic as the United States taking over the role of the British Empire in the Greek Civil War in 1947. To many that represented the peaceful transfer of global hegemonic power from Pax Britannica to Pax Americana.

China is currently an aspiring hegemonic power though currently fails to realise its potential primarily because it focuses on deploying only its hard power in the form of territorial aggrandisement. Such an approach causes the countries it wants to lead to be nervous of its power. China could learn much by studying the rise of the United States in the twentieth century. Chinese foreign policy would be better served by deploying its massive cultural potential and historic leadership role in the region that goes back to ancient times.

China may currently be nervous of a united Korea but it shouldn’t be. Its unease probably arises from the assumption that a united Korea would be an America client. However, by doing so China is underestimating its geostrategic potential. In many regards China has been presented with a huge opportunity.

If China unilaterally decided to liberate North Korea and announced its intention to facilitate the creation of a free and united Korea at the outset it would gain immense international prestige that would dwarf anything that it has previously achieved in the modern era. As a result, its cultural influence would expand exponentially. Such action could even permanently dislodge the United States from its position of preeminance in South Korea and the wider region.

China appears to be in favour of a rule based international economic order. If it started to adopt a similar approach to international politics and focused on being a bulwark of international law and using its soft rather than its hard power then China would be closer to its ultimate aim of providing regional and even global leadership.

However, the Chinese liberation of North Korea would have to be accompanied by a major shift in Chinese geopolitical doctrine for its effects to be decisive. At the moment, China is in dispute with many of its neighbours in the South China Sea where it has displayed unreasonable territorial ambitions. It should commit itself to an amicable resolution of that dispute.

If China behaved honourably in Korea and followed this up with a solution to the South China Sea dispute it would begin to realise its desire to be a real leader in global affairs. This could even be the first step in the restoration of China as the Middle Kingdom in fact rather than just name.

Nuclear War on the Korean Peninsula – Danger to Carrier Strike Group 1?

The oft quoted curse, “may you live in interesting times” certainly applies to the contemporary Korean peninsula. A US carrier battle group (Carrier Strike Group 1) led by the Nimitz class supercarrier USS Carl Vinson currently steams into the region (1) to confront the Pyongyang regime’s nuclear weapons programme. In the meantime, the North Korean arsenal is put on display in a military parade (2). Another article headline screams “US War With North Korea ‘may break out at any moment'” (3).

The Americans can be rightly proud of their military prowess. However, is the US task force vulnerable to a North Korean nuclear strike? Could the fleet be taken out with one blast? North Korea certainly has the missile technology.

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Vice-Admiral B.B. Schofield C.B., C.B.E. writing in the journal of Royal United Services Institution states:

“It is true that great strides have been made in providing anti-aircraft protection to forces so engaged, but whereas an interception rate of 95 per cent, of hostile aircraft would be quite acceptable in non-nuclear war, it is no longer so in repelling an attack by aircraft armed with nuclear weapons” (4).

The 95% interception rate mentioned above article may not good enough if the North Koreans deployed a nuclear weapon as part of an intensive conventional attack that gave the fleet innumerable targets to worry about. If a nuke gets through, then the fleet’s role in the war is over and South Korea is wide open to conventional and nuclear attack, as well as massive invasion.

The Americans may therefore opt for a first strike including the tactical use of nuclear weapons. They may also need to deploy tactical nuclear weapons at the outset against an advancing North Korean army to avoid South Korea being overrun.

To delay and prevaricate might invite the disaster of a North Korean first strike on the fleet, America’s principle method of projecting its power.

Would the American’s have to embark on a full-scale blitzkrieg style invasion to accompany any attack by the carrier battle group? Or would special forces specifically targeting North Korea’s nuclear strike capability suffice?

None of this even considers a simultaneous North Korean nuclear attack against American allies in the region. How likely would it be for a desperate regime to launch such an attack on Japanese population centres? What would be the economic impact of even a limited nuclear war on the already fragile global economy?

I think an America conquest of North Korea is possible but the costs – material, human, economic and political – could be extremely high. Perhaps it would be better if the American’s gave the green light for China to officially annex North Korea and displace the current regime. That’s if the Chinese were willing! That would at least maintain North Korea as some sort of buffer between superpower and would-be superpower and maintain a state of stability and strategic balance. It would also transfer the North Korean nuclear missile stock to more responsible and rational hands.

However, after saying all this, I suspect the whole military posturing by the Trump Administration is merely a strategic bluff to be used to encourage China to act in a way more beneficial to US interests. If this is the case it may be a very shrewd gambit that could yield wide ranging benefits to the United States.

Interesting times indeed!

(1) ‘Powerful’ USS Carl Vinson Steams Toward North Korea

(2) North Korea Displays Apparently New Missiles as U.S. Carrier Group Approaches

(3) US War With North Korea ‘may break out at any moment’ (4) The Employment of Nuclear Weapons at Sea, by Vice-Admiral B.B. Schofield C.B., C.B.E., Royal United Services Institution Journal. Pages 168-171, published online 11 September 2009.

Grand Opening of Lock Eleven, New Inn Walton

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Also posted on my WakefieldVistas blog

It just so happened that my most recent meal at the New Inn fell on the night of the grand opening of the new restaurant – Lock Eleven.

The New Inn is my local pub and I have been there many times for both food and drink. It has a good range of beers, the food is excellent and the staff friendly. However, my main purpose here is not to give a pub or restaurant review but to discuss the newly refurbished pub itself and the history that it helps to evoke. To some extent I adopt the role of art an critic or local historian.

Throughout the New Inn there are framed photographs of a wide range of Walton views that, for me, were an inspired form of decoration in the first place.  They capture the essence of contemporary Walton. These have remained in the newly refurbished setting and continue to provide a necessary sense of place.

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In the main part of the pub, the ‘old part’, there is new carpeting, new wallpaper and new lighting. The use of new lanterns of various colours creates a warm atmosphere and the new wallpaper is of exquisite quality. The whole ensemble blends together well and continuity is created between the newly refurbished ‘old’ part and the previously non public component that has been newly incorporated.

Moving down the steps into the lower part of the restaurant, the part that opens onto the car park and has its own set of patio doors, is the entrance part for the restaurant. It has its own welcome desk for diners and the room is tastefully put together. Hopefully this arrangement will prevent diners monopolising the bar area and maintain the New Inn as a traditional pub as well as a restaurant.

The next part that I am going to discuss is where things get really interesting – the part of the building that was previously out of the public sphere. There is a passage way that links to some new dining areas. One of these areas is next to the kitchen and you can see the food being prepared via a large serving hatch. This linkage to the heart of the restaurant, the kitchen, works very well. It also gives you an opportunity to appreciate the work of the people who prepare the food.

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Then we have another new previously unseen area, the upstairs part. This is the exclusive part of the the new restaurant, Lock Eleven. To get a seat in this part you need to book in advance. This part is airy and opens out onto a balcony where people are able to enjoy al fresco dining on fine days. There are views of the village from here and I could even see the House in which I was born, back in the 1970s.

Lock Eleven was an inspired choice for a name. I love it when people think about local history in such decisions, it is an important consideration when creating an authentic sense of place. Walton was once on the route of the Barnsley Canal that was started in 1793. The canal was a key transport link during the Industrial Revolution. Lock Eleven was the lock that stood next to the New Inn Pub. Walton still has places where the canal infrastructure can still be seen and many of these are set in beautiful countryside. The fact that then North of England was at the epicentre of the industrial revolution is of global historical significance.

As for the atmosphere on opening night, you could sense the excitement and enthusiasm about the place when you walked through the door, the pride of the staff was palpable. The pub has already received a significant transformation when Ria and Iain took over from Tommy. However, the new look is on a completely different level – it is spectacular! The feel is luxurious and there is great attention to detail. The ornaments are amazing too, note the grizzly bear and the rhino in particular.

I am sure people will come to the restaurant from miles around – the surroundings are as excellent as the food and the atmosphere is great.

Perhaps the diners might also choose to explore the surrounding countryside and its history. There are other things to see in addition to the remains of the canal. Walton is also the site of the world’s first nature reserve (1) that was built on the estate of the local squire – Charles Waterton. His seat, Walton Hall, which is now a hotel is well worth seeing. Much of the wall that surrounded the nature reserve is still standing, though it could do with some repair given its historical importance.

Walton is well worth a visit for people who like natural history, conservation, environmentalism or wildlife – Charles Darwin himself once visited (2) (3) Squire Waterton at Walton Hall. Pollution from the Soap House in Walton inspired what must have been one of the earliest instances of environmentalist litigation when Charles Waterton took on soap manufacturer Edward Thornhill Simpson and won (4) (5). Soap House Yard is, incidentally,  located only a few meters away from the location of the New Inn.

After such a visit, environmental tourists to Walton could do a lot worse than checking out Lock Eleven and having a meal. Creating it was obviously a labour of love by people who are deeply attached to the Village of Walton and its heritage.

Lock Eleven, The New Inn, Walton.

(1) Waterton’s Park

(2) The Correspondence of Charles Darwin

(3) Charles Waterton: A Biography, by Brian W. Edington

(4) Charles Waterton 1782 – 1865: Traveller and Conservationist, by Julia Blackburn (Chapter XV page 144-155)

(5) Charles Waterton – Life & History – An Introduction 

Some other interesting articles about Charles Waterton:

The Gentle Art of Political Taxidermy: Charles Waterton, Squire of Walton Hall 

Mr Darwin Welcome

A Rare Species of Eccentric

Scientist of the Day – Charles Waterton

Triumph of the West and a Mutually Beneficial Celebration of Cultural ‘Appropriation’

Demonisation of the West

The demonisation of the West has become the driving paradigm of Western academics and media talking heads, as well as those who promote their own cultural preferences with as much zeal as the West ever did. We are increasingly led to believe that anything and everything that the West has ever done is always bad and what other civilisations do or have done, by the very virtue of them being non Western, are always good or, at the very least, excusable. Of course, most reasonable people acknowledge that all cultures have done both good and bad and future cultures will be the same.

In the 1980s, there was a BBC documentary series presented by Oxford Historian John Roberts called The Triumph of the West. This excellent series had a profound influence on my own intellectual development. Firstly it encouraged me to have a civilisational rather than nationalistic outlook, something that was quite uncommon in the 1980s. Since this time my worldview has always been pan European, and until very recently I was very much in favour of the European Union. After all, by having a civilisational outlook it made the heroes of other countries into my own heroes. I could accept Leonardo da Vinci, Voltaire or Nicholas Copernicus just as much as Drake, Nelson or Churchill.

I have been trying to find the series on DVD for some time, but to no avail. It probably has something to do with it not supporting the current anti-Western paradigm. However, someone has put a large part of the series (seven episodes) on YouTube (see below). It is well worth watching and a much-needed antidote to the unthinking critique of Western civilisation, philosophy and science that is promoted in certain influential circles.

Triumph of the West

The BBC series, The Triumph of the West, shows how the West was the engine of progress that created the modern world. It brought people together on a scale hitherto unknown thanks to its voyages of discovery. The series demonstrates that the West became the first civilisation in the world to abolish slavery for its own sake – for moral rather than material reasons. It shows how much of the world adopted, or as we will see later – appropriated, Western technology and Western fashion. It shows how Western communications technology transformed the world, ultimately to the benefit of all. It shows how it was the West that laid the foundations on which contemporary globalisation was built upon. These are aspects of Western history that people can take pride in.

In the days in which the series was made there was a degree of regret about the excesses of Western imperialism but not the cultural pessimism and self-debasement of the present day. The series was not presenting an hagiography of the West, it recognised the achievements of other civilisations and how the West was built upon their achievements and appropriated their ideas and technologies. It also recognised the parts of Western history for which we should rightly be ashamed but it did so in a more balanced way than is seen today. Just like with all cultures and civilisations, there are good and bad aspects. Modern documentary makers could learn something from The Triumph of the West.

Cultural Appropriation

One of the most pernicious techniques used to demonise the West the is the practice of unilaterally claiming ownership of language and definitions and using this perceived control to prevent logical debate on the issues.

A particular technique used to attack the West, that has been in the news recently in relation to the attack on Syria with tomahawk cruise missiles,  is the often-used charge of cultural ‘appropriation’. This is when someone in the open minded West dares to incorporate elements of another non-western culture. The accusation of cultural ‘appropriation’ is designed to mark someone out as somehow being intolerant or insensitive. However, it would appear that the use of such accusations is the legacy of the ‘active measures’ used by the Soviet Union against its NATO enemies during the Cold War!

Soviet active measures were not designed to promote equality and fairness, they were designed to sow division in the target country to create societal weakness and make it more vulnerable in the case of war. They were not designed to create intercultural harmony in the diverse West, they were designed to create a sense of grievance in order to create conflict. The idea of criticising cultural ‘appropriation’ would fit into the toolbox of Soviet active measures quite snugly and the technique bears the hallmarks of something that has been designed. It exploits division and makes society weaker and less cohesive. High level Soviet defector Yuri Bezmenov explained the technique back in 1983:

“What it basically means is: to change the perception of reality of every American that despite of the abundance of information no one is able to come to sensible conclusions in the interest of defending themselves, their families, their community, and their country.”

It is applied with a broad brush, and those who use the brush try to confuse people by contrasting it with the term ‘cultural sharing’. However, where one ends and the other begins is left deliberately vague so that the political activists using it have maximum freedom of usage. Appropriation would imply that the thing in question was taken without permission, but is culture something that it is possible for someone to own. Normally, people see an aspect of another culture and absorb it. The practice of al fresco dining, barabaques and the cafe culture was something that was adopted in England after people had experienced continental holidays. They did not get permission to do it while abroad. Adopting aspects of culture is something that happens naturally and informally.

This is what happened when some white women decided to start wearing hooped ear rings.  They liked the look of them and thought I like those and they will look good on me so they started wearing them. However, they then faced charges of cultural ‘appropriation’ and told they should not be wearing them. No patent was violated, but the grievance industry saw an opportunity to create division. It is the equivalent of someone telling Sir Walter Raleigh that the people of Europe should not be eating potatoes when he brought them back from America! After all, I bet he did not get permission spread the culinary traditions of the Americas to other areas.

So as we can see, what is being described is not theft, because the thing in question is not something that is bought or sold, it is something that just is. It is not even sharing because in probably a majority of cases in human history, like the air we breath, it was something that was simply taken. This has always being how humans learn – they see a good way to do something and they copy it. The concept of owning a culture is particular perverse in any case, but people will try all sorts of approaches to earn money and should not be stopped from being creative.

The use of the term ‘appropriation’ is therefore very misleading that is which I have put the word appropriation in inverted commas. Cultural transfer is a much clearer and better way of saying the same thing but that would not be as effective from an active measures point of view.

The use of the term cultural ‘appropriation’ illustrates how the concept is designed to create a particular political outcome – the defining factor in active measures subversion. What makes the true motives of people using this political tool even clearer is that it is related by them to another vague concept – privileged and non-privileged groups. Of course, only they can decide who is put into each category and why. The real world is far more complex and nuanced and putting people into categories like this is yet another way of generating grievance and creating conflict.

These active measures, once initiated by the Soviets, would run on indefinitely and so they continued after the Cold War ended. Self-interested opportunists have adopted this legacy, whether they are neo Marxists wanting to sow global revolution or globalists trying to control democracies via a policy of divide and rule.

How cultural ‘appropriation’ is a normal part of human development

Trade is cultural transfer in its most basic form and is something that human beings have been doing since prehistoric times. Trade has always helped augment cultures and make them more alike. It has also served to promote shared interests and peace.

Labelling such cultural transfer as appropriation defies both reality and logic. The notion implies that culture is static – something that is refuted by historical reality. The desire to put people in distinctive and unchanging categories and to play them off against each other is something that should be treated with suspicion. Cultures merge, blend and borrow from one another, they always have and always will. It is not natural for cultures to develop in isolation and attempts to create a patchwork of cultural isolation is, frankly, quite silly.

In ancient times, China was the predominant culture in the world for many thousands of years yet this did not stop the West appropriating its many fruits. It ‘appropriated’ many things including, paper, gunpowder, alcohol, tea drinking, wearing silk and many others. It did not do this out of fear, it did it because the things that Chinese culture had produced were deemed useful or better than their home produced alternatives. As such we became a little bit more Chinese than we used to be and the two civilisations had that bit more in common. Surely this is something that should be encouraged. Absorbing parts of another culture is the highest praise that can been bestowed upon that culture. It illustrates cultural strength and longevity and is a demonstration of the success and resilience of that culture. It is a recognition of that culture’s contribution to world civilisation. For instance the factory system that the British found in Bengal could not fail to have influenced the creation of the industrial revolution in Northern England. The English probably applied what they learned from it subconsciously and certainly did not ask for permission.

Just like classical Communism ignored human nature in economics, those who peddle the results of Soviet active measures in the West ignore human nature in cultural terms. Blending ideas creates new thoughts and facilitates human progress, whoever the immediate beneficiaries may be.

Many people at the time that The Triumph of the West series was made believed that as a result of all countries adopting Western modernity, the world would become just like the West. Many countries adopted the methods of Western modernity, yet failed to develop. Other countries like Japan took it upon itself to use the technology, the intellectual property, of the West but gave it a uniquely Japanese twist.  This created something new, something better, something uniquely Japanese. In turn Western countries adopted some of the uniquely Japanese components to improve their own technology and appropriated these aspects of Japanese culture. Neither the Japanese or the West asked for permission they just learned from what they saw.

A similar thing happened following the Norman conquest of Sicily. The new rulers sensibly recognised the value of aspects of the previous Arabic culture and used it. Again, this fuelled progress, and at that time a sense of mutual understanding and common purpose among the Norman and Arabic cultures on the island of Sicily prevailed. The impact of this ‘appropriation’ benefited both cultures.

Conclusion

When cultures are brought together, as they are today, in increasingly confined areas then the impact of ‘cultural appropriation’ will become even more intensified. This is a natural thing and a very good thing. It is when cultural appropriation does not happen that people should worry. If people confine themselves to the pigeon holes assigned to them by globalists of ‘progressive’ politicians then that is something to really worry about. If people are afraid to engage in ‘cultural appropriation’ then the result is a dangerous polarisation that could, in the end, result in ghettoization and conflict. This would be a disaster. Perhaps those who condemn ‘cultural appropriation’ are striving to create such a situation for their own self-interested political motives. The techniques unleashed by Soviet active measures should not be allowed to destroy our societies so long after the Cold War ended.

The real triumph of the West was the creation our world where all cultures and civilisations know each other and learn from each other. Throughout the period when the West was predominant it ‘appropriated’ the ideas of other civilisations and they ‘appropriated’ ideas from the West. As we stabilise into a multi-civilisational world order we will continue the very human tradition of ‘cultural appropriation’ and in so doing we will evolve into something new, different and better.

An Analysis Of President Trump’s Proportional Response To The Use Of Chemical Weapons in Syria

A Proportional Response

The US attack on Syria last night was a proportional response. The West Wing TV show did a good explanation of what this is. In the following video footage the fictional President Bartlett is speaking against the virtue of a proportionate response. It must be noted here that he had lost a close friend in the attack that his generals are proposing to respond to. He is acting emotionally which is always dangerous whether you are fighting a duel or conducting international relations. In fact an emotional response will get you killed in a duel and could get you into a major destructive war when applied to international relations. In international relations rational and calculated action is usually the least dangerous approach.

An Anti Establishment Response

President Trump is vilified by the mainstream media because his vision for the world is different from that of the globalist establishment who own that media and use it as a propaganda tool to promote their interests. Those interests are global and therefore independent of any single country. In fact individual countries, especially democratic ones, are a serious impediment to the realisation of globalist policy goals.

President Trump has been friendly towards Russia because Russia also has a vision for the world that is different to the globalist establishment. That is also the reason that the mainstream media vilifies Russia and promotes war against it. I doubt the Trump vision and the Russia vision for the world are the same but the globalist establishment is the stronger and is perceived as the most dangerous player at the moment.

President Trump was manoeuvred into a corner by the globalist establishment and had to act to restore his control of the strategic environment. A proportional response was a way to forestall the establishment desire to promote serious hostility between Russia and the United States. He has now successfully restored his personal control to the situation for the following reasons:

  1. If President Assad did indeed order the chemical attack then it will deter him from doing so again. This gives President Trump the opportunity to demonstrate that he is not a Russian pawn. This strengthens his domestic position without giving in to demands to escalate hostility with Russia.
  2. If it was the rebels who staged the attack to secure a propaganda victory and provoke a disproportionate response then that now will not now happen. Action has been taken and a line has been drawn.
  3. The mainstream media and its globalist owners clearly want to provoke American involvement in full scale war in Syria. This proportional response will nullify their campaign at least for a while.

Globalist End Game Forestalled?

We have already seen how the result of similar globalist inspired strategies in Libya, Egypt, Iraq and indeed Syria itself was to empower ISIS and produce maximum instability in the region. We have also seen how this strategy has created the refugee crisis, which from a globalist perspective is not a crisis at all but an opportunity.

A conclusion that can be drawn from the desire to continue this strategy is that the globalists want to make things so bad in the region that people will be driven from their homes and effectively be forced to become refugees. If this conclusion is correct then it would appear that the globalist grand strategy may be to deliberately create a divide and rule situation in Europe and North America in order weaken the ability of public’s in those countries to oppose their brand of globalisation that seeks to lower business costs without giving the full benefits to those territories and their people.

In the meantime, the counties in the Middle East are robbed of their most talented people. They are left as a weakened and impoverished disaster zone that can be easily recolonised in the globalist interest at a later date once their European and North American base has been tamed.

Conclusion

President Trump has delayed what he would regard as the globalist advance. The globalists will adapt and attempt to continue their policy in the future, but President Trump has bought valuable time and room for manoeuvre.

It might seem counter intuitive but the proportional response is not only good for President Trump, it is good for Russia and the anti ISIS elements within Syria too. In some ways it could be regarded as a victory, or at least a stalemate, for Russia because the damage caused by the information warfare that being waged against it is the most dangerous to its interests. The cold information war was reaching the point where it could have turned hot. The temporary loss of a Syrian airfield is an insignificant price to pay for a lull in the information war and a return to a situation of relative strategic stability.

There will be some vocal protests from Russia at the UN, that will make it look like the attack was more significant than it was. However, this will also improve President Trump’s credibility. Their protests will be symbolic and it will be in their interests not to further escalate the situation. In the meantime, ISIS will not have the opportunity that would arise from the fall of the Assad regime. The heat will be taken out of the situation and it will be quietly kicked into the long political grass. Politics will resume its slow march forth.

The image that the media has been trying to create for Trump is one of the warmonger with his finger on the nuclear trigger. His measured, proportional response to this crisis suggests the opposite.

Skulduggery In Sandal: The Arrest of John Nevison at the Three Houses

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I’ve spent quite a few hours in the Three Houses, having meals, attending wedding receptions and having a drink or two on a Saturday nights.

It is located in the next village to mine – Sandal which goes back to William the Conqueror’s Domesday book that mentions the local Church dedicated to St Helen, the mother of the Roman Emperor Constantine the great who was declared emperor in nearby York and who made Christianity the empire’s official religion.

Wakefield has quite a bit of history and this pub represents some of that history. It was here that the notorious highwayman John Nevison was arrested while boozing in 1684. The inscription on the blue plaque affixed to the pub in 2009 to honour of the event reads as follows:

“John Nevison (1639-1685), the famous robber and highwayman, seen by some as a latter day Robin Hood, was reputedly arrested at the Three Houses Inn at Sandal prior to his conviction and execution at York in 1685.”

Some of Nevison’s exploits became erroneously associated with the most famous highwayman of all, Dick Turpin who was the hero of the TV series in then late 1970s and early 1980s staring Richard O’Sullivan:

Its nice to drink in places with a degree of historic texture, makes you feel part of the continuity of civilisation. Something to ponder while enjoying the company of friends while enjoying the company of friends while dining or drinking.

More on John Nevison at Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Nevison